Wednesday, September 17, 2014

ASAP: As Sustainable As Possible
by Paul Van Horn, et al

Viewed: 25312 times

A Working Model to Assess and Improve the Sustainability of Outdoor Education and Recreation

Developed by

Sustainable Backcountry Travel
Northland College
Fall 2007

Visiting Assistant Professor of Outdoor Education
Paul Van Horn
Anna Bauer, Hilary Bulger, Drew Cramer, Byron Emmons, Joe Graveen, Dave Lardinois, Andrew Rasmus, Paul Sveum, Jessica Swiercynski, Dave Thomas, Carolyn Weber

"We do not inherit the world from our ancestors. We borrow it from our children."
~Haida Indian saying

Special Thanks to

Connie Burditt, Instructor and Associate Director of Native American Studies
Jorge Conesa-Sevilla, Associate Professor of Psychology
Tim Doyle, Visiting Assistant Professor of Religion and Philosophy
Clare Hintz, Sustainable Systems Educator
Derek Ogle, Associate Professor of Mathematics and Applied Statistics
Kevin Schanning, Associate Professor of Sociology
Background information and context by Hilary Bulger and Paul Sveum

Presented at the Wilderness Education Association's National Conference
San Diego, California
February 14, 2008
Hilary Bulger, Paul Sveum, and Paul Van Horn

Versions of the ASAP Model

What does it mean to be sustainable? What does sustainability itself even mean?The terms "sustainable," "green," and "organic" have become the cultural phenomenon of today. Once people began to realize the projected idea that taking away from the land more than what could be given back was detrimental not only to the health of the planet, but also affected humankind as well, the revolution began. Ecological consciousness has spread, but there is still a lot of work that needs to be done in order to create a more sustainable society. One of the hardest industries to restructure is the outdoor recreation industry. So much of what the outdoor industry represents and supports involves some very unsustainable, anti-"green," non-organic processes, opposite of the values held by the majority, if not all, of the individuals in the industry.

The process of formulating a cohesive and comprehensive program intended to make people examine their practices in hopes of inspiring change is a grand undertaking, especially when it is centered around a term whose own definition is often up for interpretation, sustainability.We looked to the Natural Step for our working definition of sustainability, or what it means to be sustainable.The Natural Step defines sustainability from an ecocentric point of view; where all species, people included, and the ecosystems they live in have the right to life on Earth.

The Natural Step is a framework of conditions that must be met for a society to be considered sustainable.Oncologist Dr. Karl-Henrik Robert brought together leading Swedish scientist to develop the framework, grounded in science and natural cycles in 1989.The four conditions and a brief discussion of each that follow are taken from the The Oregon Natural Step Network's website.

In order for a society to be sustainable, nature's functions and diversity are not systematically subject to increasing concentrations of substances extracted from the earth's crust. In a sustainable society, human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, and the mining of metals minerals, will not occur at a rate that causes them to systematically increase in the ecosphere. There are thresholds beyond which living organisms and ecosystems are adversely affected by increases in substances from the earth's crust. Problems may include an increase in greenhouse gases leading to global warming, contamination of surface and ground water, and metal toxicity which can cause functional disturbances in animals. In practical terms, the first condition requires society to implement comprehensive metal and mineral recycling programs and to decrease economic dependence on fossil fuels.

In order for a society to be sustainable, nature's functions and diversity are not systematically subject to increasing concentrations of substances produced by society. In a sustainable society, humans will avoid generating systematic increases in persistent substances such as DDT, PCBs, and freon. Synthetic organic compounds such as DDT and PCBs can remain in the environment for many years, bio-accumulating in the tissue of organisms and causing profound deleterious effects on predators in the upper levels of the food chain.Freon, and other ozone depleting compounds, may increase the risk of cancer due to added UV radiation in the troposphere.Society needs to find ways to reduce economic dependence on persistent human-made substances.

In order for a society to be sustainable, nature's functions and diversity are not systematically impoverished by physical displacement, over-harvesting, or other forms of ecosystem manipulation. In a sustainable society, humans will avoid taking more from the biosphere than can be replenished by natural systems.In addition, people will avoid systematically encroaching upon nature by destroying the habitat of other species.Biodiversity, which includes the great variety of animals and plants found in nature, provides the foundation for ecosystem services which are necessary to sustain life on this planet.Society's health and prosperity depends on the enduring capacity of nature to renew itself and rebuild waste into resources.

In a sustainable society, people are not subject to conditions that systematically undermine their capacity to meet their needs. All human beings have intrinsic needs.The goal of the social system is to provide the opportunity for all to meet those needs, as a precondition to a dignified way of life for everyone."What" we do and "how" we do it matters.To make decisions which take us toward this goal, in consideration of any policy, product, marketing, or investment, we should always identify in advance the people who are going to be affected, taking the widest possible systems view.We should ask ourselves: "Would we like to be subjected to the conditions we create?"In addition, the manner in which we make these decisions should allow for participation, be transparent, hold actors accountable, and be honest.

It was in areas like environmental ethics and philosophy that we needed the input from thinkers in those fields.We worked with Tim Doyle, Visiting Assistant Professor of Religion and Philosophy, and Kevin Schanning, Assistant Professor of Sociology, to sort out the ethics rooted in environmental issues.In many of our discussions, we came down to very basic issues of morals and ethics, that we as a class could talk about, but knowing that our program would possibly be used by other people outside of our small environmental college, we had to be careful not to load any of the terms or expectations in a way that would either offend or turn off people who potentially would have used our program for good.

Similarly, the issue of why came up many times.Why we need this gear, why do we travel great distances to seek the outdoors when it usually exists within walking distance?For these questions, we talked with Associate Professor of Psychology Jorge Conesa-Sevilla.He contributed the ecopsychological aspects to our program, which really filled in the holes between the physical, what should I bring camping, and the psychological, why am I bringing this much gear, why am I even going?

Connie Burditt, Instructor of Native American Studies shared her thoughts on the connection between sustainable backcountry ethics and traditional cultures.We realized there is a link between sustainability and traditional knowledge and talking to Connie made that even more apparent.So many of the problems we addressed are cultural in essence, so having the chance to probe into a culture based on harmonious life with the earth was important.

In the beginning of the class, we needed to find a way to break apart this problem of sustainability into manageable categories.We enlisted the help of Clare Hintz, Sustainable Systems Educator, to guide us through the different ways of system thinking to solve problems.The process of system thinking isolates individual components of the system and draws on the group's ideas to make connections between the different parts of the system.

After we isolated the three aspects of outdoor recreation that we felt were most addressable in out time frame - gear, locale, and food - we split into three groups, each to tackle the research and development of each category.The class spent the bulk of our semester researching their area of focus, and then bringing their findings to class to discuss with the rest of the group.After many classes we felt comfortable with the scope of our work and spent the remaining few classes working on the composition and structure of the ASAP program.

For each of the three sections there is background information describing problems we identified and potential solutions we came up with.Much of our focus was on low hanging fruits, accessible things we thought could be done today or tomorrow.Each section also has a future steps and considerations, as well as unanswered questions, which were innumerable.

In designing our model, we tried to come up with criteria that could be evaluated by users.Some of them are still difficult, like determining where every step of production takes places and what materials and processes are used.There are certainly more criteria that could be included.We found the following to be, in our opinion, the most relevant and researchable.

It is worth noting that this project was undertaken by eleven students, guided by one professor, during a two credit, semester long course.This is obviously a bigger issue than that.There are many, many questions we raised that need further research, thought, and discussion.There are many other questions we raised that there may not be answers to, yet.

Some of the issues yet to be resolved inherent in our model itself are some incongruencies between sections as they were written by different groups of students, particularly in language, depth, and citations.The statistics, as far as the percentages and weights, given that each section has a different possible number of points, was something we struggled with.We consulted Derek Ogle, Associate Professor of Mathematics and Applied Statistics for advice and decided, for now, to accept that while the three categories hold equal weight, changes within one category are not equal to changes within another category.

We need to remember that sustainability, like this model, is a work in progress.We are on a journey and we can not be sure of what the end will look like, but we can do our part to influence it. What is sustainable today should not and cannot be considered sustainable tomorrow as our knowledge, technologies (for better or worse), expectations, and global conditions change.


by Anna Bauer, Dave Lardinois, Andrew Rasmus, Carolyn Weber


People's desire to consume is not a new issue, as we are well aware of. People consume resources to survive. Unfortunately, what we are facing now is a society that has become addicted to commodities and convenience. The bar has shifted from consumption of what is necessary to survive to consumption of luxuries that are thought of as necessities. The results of our purchases are not transparent and are creating global harm. The consumption patterns have changed drastically, evolving over time based on the influence of those in control. The few very wealthy that control these systems have created an economy reliant on wasteful consumerism.

J.W. Smith suggests that, "Though most societies were efficient for the time in which they were formed, powerful nations disintegrated when too large a share of their labor was diverted to unnecessary tasks. Some societies, such as the European aristocratic structures, needlessly expended labor, resources, and capital to support militaristic elite bent on plundering neighbors and their own workers. Each of these societies became locked into a wasteful system of production and distribution. The United States is also locked into a wasteful expenditure of labor, resources, and industry" (Smith, 1994, p.4).

Just how wasteful is this system?The processes that lead to such disparities in unequal consumption are themselves wasteful and are structured deep into the system itself. Economic efficiency is for making profits, not necessarily for social good, which is treated as a side effect. The waste in the economic system is, as a result, very deep. Eliminating the causes of this type of waste is related to the elimination of poverty and bringing rights to all. Eliminating the waste also allows for further equitable consumption for all, as well as a decent standard of consumption.

Just what are the products made out of that we consume? Plastics, nylon, metal and all sorts of materials with names that are most likely unfamiliar. Being unfamiliar with these materials, we fail to realize what it takes to produce these products. Most of the gear we buy is created from non-renewable resources that in the process create harmful by-products, polluting the air and stripping the Earth of its resources. The energy that goes into these productions causes huge amounts of carbon emissions to be released into the atmosphere. As our society has finally publicly identified the tremendous harm carbon emissions have on our climate, we can see how this production system must change.

Besides using energy and producing harmful emissions, we must understand the risk of creating such large amounts of non-renewable resources.If we look at the natural step, we can identify that production of these non-renewable resources is an environmental hazard. Chemicals that are man-made are identified as dangerous due to their unknown factor. There is not enough research, time, or money that can identify the effects creating these chemicals will have on people and the earth in general. We most likely will be unable to see these results until much time has past.

We must also consider that creating these non-renewable materials causes by- products. In the past by-products have been dumped, often randomly, causing contamination to the land and dangerous sites that future generations will have to endure. These dump sites often become dangerous.Why must we then, create these products if they cause so much harm to the environment and ourselves? Additionally, the gear itself, when we are done using it, often gets dumped as well, rather than recycled, reused, or repaired.Fortunately we can create products from sustainably grown resources that bio-degrade. Though not readily available in all areas for all budgets, we must increase the demand for these eco-friendly and sustainably grown products as a step in creating a more sustainable Outdoor Industry.


Renewable Materials

Renewable materials are grown and harvested in sustainable manner. Examples of renewable materials are: bamboo, soy, cocona, hemp, corn based plastic, and hevea tree. Some research is required to confirm that they are in fact sustainable - processing may require the use of large amounts of other materials or energy which may make the "renewable" product no more sustainable.

2 points - made out of 100% renewable materials or materials that come from an organic producer

1 point - made out of at least 20% renewable materials and less than one third of materials are non-sustainable products, such as petroleum based products

0 points - made of primarily non-sustainable materials

Recycled Materials

Recycled materials are materials that have can be reused for another purpose. This can include the direct reuse of a material such as a glass or plastic container. This can also include the reusing of only the material and transforming it into a different product, such as using an old t-shirt to make a bag.  An aluminum backpack frame that is made out of old pop cans is another example. When making an item out of recycled materials be aware of the things that go into its creation such as glue, sewing thread, or paint for these items are not being recycled.When purchasing an item made out of recycled materials, make sure to research what other materials, including energy, are used and created in the production process.

2 points - made out of 100% recycled materials

1 point - made out of at least 20% recycled materials

0 points - made out of primarily non-recycled materials


Carbon Emissions

According to scientists, carbon dioxide is the number one green house gas contributing to global warming. The production process of many materials causes emissions of carbon into the atmosphere. The less carbon a material produces or emits during its production process the lower its impact. If carbon offsets or credits are bought, research should be done on the company they are purchased through.

2 points - amount of production of carbon is within or below environmental regulations stated by the Kyoto protocol (Annex 1 country), without the purchase of carbon credits

1 point - buys carbon offsets

0 points - amount of carbon is well above environmental regulations or is unknown


Distance from Production to Purchase

The transportation of goods is responsible for a large portion of the carbon output of a product. The fewer miles a product has to travel to the point of purchase translates directly to a decrease in the amount of carbon produced by that product. Buying locally not only improves the economy of the community, it also leads to fewer greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

2 points - entire production process and transportation is accomplished within 100 miles of purchase

1 point - entire production process and transportation is accomplished within 1,000 miles of purchase

0 points - entire production process and transportation is not accomplished within 1,000 miles of the purchase


Synthetic Compounds

According to the Natural Step, as summarized by the Oregon Natural Step Network, "synthetic organic compounds such as DDT and PCBs can remain in the environment for many years, bio-accumulating in the tissue of organisms and causing profound deleterious effects on predators in the upper levels of the food chain."Purchase products that do not use or produce synthetic compounds at any stage of their production.

2 points - there are absolutely no synthetic organic compounds that are produced during or for the production process

0 points - there are synthetic organic compounds that are produced during or for the production process


Accessibility of Company Information

When doing research on a company, it is important that that company's policies and product information be easily accessible. This also means that the information is clearly stated as a legitimate fact and is not merely an attempt to sound environmentally friendly, known as greenwashing. Look for companies that belong to the Conservation Alliance and reference the Environmental Protection Agency.

2 points - company exercises public accountability

1 point - moderately to heavy research is needed to find information on the company's production process

0 points - no information is available on the company's production process


Fair Trade

Companies that follow Fair Trade standards are more sustainably responsible. The standards set by Fair Trade, including fair prices, labor conditions, direct trade from the production country, and factors of environmental sustainability, help protect the environment and attempt to rectify the socioeconomic impacts of our current economy. The standards guarantee that set economic, social and environmental criteria that will be met during trade and production processes.

2 points - follows standards of Fair Trade

0 points - few regulations


Multiuse Gear

Identifying and taking advantage of gear that has multiple uses will decrease the amount of gear purchased and used.This, in turn, decreases the number of resources used.A poncho, for example, can be used to as protection from wind and rain, as a ground cloth, or as a tarp.Think outside the box when considering what to bring on a trip as well as when purchasing.

2 points - three easily distinguished and applicable uses

1 point - two easily distinguished and applicable uses

0 points - one use


Future Steps and Considerations

The first simple way to become more sustainable in terms of gear is to use second hand gear, borrowed or rented gear, multi-use gear, or make your own gear. The basic idea is to use minimalist thinking to lessen the impact backpacking makes on the environment. Another step is to support companies that are members of Conservation Alliance, Fair Trade, or EPA Green Power Partnership and demand products that have higher environmental standards. Read tags to find information such as where the product is made and what it is made from and research what that really means. Many companies inform consumers of their environmental awareness by using little packaging or packaging which is made from recycled materials. Check to see if gear catalogs are made from recycled paper or look at products online instead. Do we have realistic expectations as far as comfort? Many of recreation areas are labeled as primitive or wilderness.Modern conveniences can over shadow the rustic and wild atmosphere of the outdoors.

Unanswered Questions

How hard is it to determine the vast amounts of steps involved in creating a product?

How do we consider the regulations in each state in determining a final system?

Will the United States take on the Annex 1 Policy?

How effective are carbon credits?How can buying more stuff offset consumerism?

Are there other organizations, like Fair Trade, that certify?

How and where do we find information about companies that are not transparent?

How high is the demand for green power?

Do companies put out or are required to publish public documents about creating emissions and using certain amounts of materials, etc?

How strict is the policy on carbon emission in the United States?

References and Resources

Adide - sends 10% of its profits back in to the community for programs and other environmental efforts ( - the Green Goat is the newest idea, supporting the minimization of the impacts on the environment to make the finest outdoor products, for "those who strive to make the world a greener place to live" (

Chammyz Clothing - makes 100% recycled clothing made from wood fiber waste (

Cleaner and Greener - this company focuses their manufacturing process to be eco-friendly and better for the environment by considering emissions and renewable ideas (

Co-op America - see how you can get involved in stopping sweatshops and learn how to support living green, Fair Trade, and green energy (

Earth Creation - uses natural clay dies in their organic hemp and cotton products (

ExOfficio - is a company that produces products that are from soy plants (

Fair Trade Certified - check out how companies are audited for Fair Trade and what it's all about (

Hemp Sisters - works with Fair Trade, women, and small businesses of Nepal (

Lonely Planet - donates 5% of its profits to projects in developing countries, check out hundreds of book that will help you recognize ideas of sustainable and eco-friendly tourism (

Loyale - the clothing produced is made in the United States and is made of materials like bamboo and organic cotton, they also donate 3% of their profits to Green Corps (

Milliken and Company (

Smith, J.W. (1994). The World's Wasted Wealth 2. Institute for Economic Democracy.

Sustainable Cotton Project (

Splaff - is a company that has a 100% no waste process for their products (


by Byron Emmons, Jessica Swiercynski


Finding ways to create a more sustainable system for backcountry travel can be difficult and at many times mind-boggling, especially in the case of all the different factors inherent in choosing a location. The first major factor for the location matrix is deciding the type of setting. For our class's purpose, location has been generalized into three terms: self-owned or private, established, and undisturbed.

Land that is privately owned can be used by its owners and their guests in an aware manner, taking care of its beauty as well as managing its resources. Private property generally gets less use than public, which are available for use at all times by everyone. Resources can be decimated faster and natural beauty can decay if a site is over-used. Undisturbed areas remain the epitome of wilderness. To remain relatively undisturbed regulations are enforced to monitor amount and types of use.

There is a fair amount of philosophical debate surround this topic.Is something really wilderness, really undisturbed if it is managed and regulated?If damming streams, climbing trees, and hiking off trail are prohibited, what are we denying ourselves?It is questions like these that need serious consideration and make choosing a location particularly difficult.

Another important facet of locale is the mode of transportation one. There are many modes of transportation, but for the most part they can be categorized into three sections: human-powered vehicles, vehicles powered by alternate mechanical forms of energy, and vehicles powered by fossil fuels. The last category can be divided into two subcategories: optimal usage of fossil fuel and incompetent usage of fossil fuel. The burning of fossil fuel is one of the main causes for the global increase in temperature. Burning fossil fuels at high rates causes the build-up of green house gasses, which causes massive holes in the ozone layer, which in turn causes more sunlight to enter our atmosphere and more heat to be trapped. The more fossil fuels are burned the more we set ourselves up to cause our own destruction. Though vehicles may spell convenience for many, fossil-fuel-burning vehicles also spell long-term disaster. Many companies are working to find a way to accommodate for such loss of fuel by creating cars that have a greater gas mileage. The greatest way to solve the problem of over-using fossil fuels is not to use them at all.

Distance is also a critical factor in deciding on a location, particularly when paired with mode of transportation. It is up to outdoor enthusiasts today to decide whether driving a distance of 25 miles is necessary or whether it could have been biked. This also forces an outdoor enthusiast to examine his or her reasons for recreating at his or her destination in the first place. For example, is it really necessary to travel all the way to Glacier National Park to go backpacking or can a person who lives in Ashland, Wisconsin go out and backpack in the Chequamegon National Forest and achieve the same satisfaction?

Once at a location, it is important to be aware of how you are treating it.Leave No Trace is a familiar set of principles, designed guide people to preserve the ecological aspects of wilderness areas that are open to recreation. Leave No Trace is fairly widespread and does promote careful use of the outdoors, but is it realistic to expect that someone is capable of not leaving a trace at all?What if it was a good trace?Like enriching the soil by spreading broken down, and of course cold, coals?We are going to use the term expertise to address the skills and ideas necessary to be a good nature traveler.By understanding, and, more importantly, practicing solid backcountry skills, we can minimize our impact and potentially leave a positive one.

One current debate is whether to use wood fires or gas stoves.Wood can be depleted quickly from an area by ignorant use, but where does gas come from?It comes down to a matter of my backyard or your backyard, a hole in the Earth or a hole in the woods.Knowing the area you are going to will help you make an informed decision about this and other issues.

Knowledge is power and the size of the group and the amount of this knowledge that the group possesses collectively is important to outdoor recreating in a sustainable and ecologically conscious manner. The more knowledge a group possesses the less impact that this particular group will have on the environment. It should be every educator's goal to teach his or her students about ecological consciousness and the importance of protecting the environment for future generations, as well as how to use the environment wisely in order to conserve resources.

Once a knowledgeable group ventures out, the amount of time that the group spends in one location and the size of the group, however knowledgeable, can cause a great decimation of resources and aesthetic beauty.To minimize the impact that one group has on a location one should resolve to move often and not stay in one position for a long period of time, as a large group must use more resources than a small group.

Ecopsychology plays an important role in the purpose behind outdoor recreation itself, so influences location as well. Ecopsychology explores the relationships between existential circumstances such as "nature estrangement" and "nature alienation" and diverse situation where psychological wellness is suggested in varying degrees of severity (Roszak, Gomes, Kanner 1995). It can be defined as mankind's desire to return to nature to stay sane. It resolves to recreate the age-old connection between humans and nature, between humans and their origins. The connection that spans the concept of the self and reaches beyond human society to again connect with nature is resolved, resulting in an ecological ego, best explained as the sense of ethical responsibility to the planet as is seen among person to person (Conessa-Sevilla 2006).

Ecopsychology questions the need for society's masculine, capitalistic, urbanized culture and cultivates ideas of a humble, open-minded, generally rural culture. To use the outdoors to help others find their ecological ego should be the pinnacle of reasoning behind recreating in the outdoors in the first place. As long as someone knows their ecological ego exists and has a desire to be outdoors and connect with nature, any reason for recreation is acceptable. The ability to give back to the environment instead of just take is a keystone when it comes to sustainability and therefore it is important to understand or at least be aware of why as a person one may require time in the outdoors... Perhaps a spark will ignite, followed by a desire to learn more about the environment and the compassion to act to make a difference.

Once a person recognizes why he or she desires to participate in outdoor pastimes, he or she can use one's knowledge to decide an appropriate place to recreate. Those with a greater knowledge of ecological consciousness should focus on the reasons they decide to recreate. Does a person really need to visit untouched wilderness or can he or she achieve the same desire in an established area? If this is so one would not need to travel far or stay in one place for long or require a remote wilderness area to appreciate the beauty that nature has to offer. Someone who is still developing his or her ecological consciousness, however, still might require something more remote and intense to feel in tune with nature. It is when one realizes that nature can be appreciated on a door step in the middle of the city that one can truly be at peace with the inner desire for nature. Location loses its value when full ecological appreciation is awoken, but until then a trip's location is what remains as the settling factor.

Once a place has been decided, one can figure out how distance and the amount of time spent recreating affect one's carbon footprint.The idea is to travel the least amount while still spending a greater time recreating so that shorter trips do not have to be taken frequently, reducing the impact caused by time spent in one place as well as reducing the possible carbon output of having to travel a certain distance frequently. By taking one long trip instead of multiple short trips it gives the ecosystem time to repair itself while people are away where as short trips continue to degrade the environment not allowing the land to heal.


Type of Area

This section is meant to address the specific areas that people choose to recreate in. In order to allow for the least amount of environmental impact while still remaining sustainable, it is best, if possible, to use private property. Going to established parks, trails, and campsites are good because they concentrate human impact so that small areas of fragile wilderness can stay intact, but the concentration of human impact at established areas can leave devastating effects such as erosion, trash build up, and over harvesting of firewood.Untouched wilderness may need to be explored for educational and scientific purposes, but impact will be more noticeable.

3 points - private property

2 points - established areas such as parks, campgrounds, trails, etc.

1 point - untouched wilderness with a purpose

0 points - untouched wilderness without a purpose


Fuel Consumption

The best options for travel that are the most sustainable and the best for the environment are those that require no mechanical parts such as walking and horse-back riding. Alternative vehicles that are modified so that they do not require fossil fuels are the next best option.If using a vehicle powered by fossil fuel, look for a vehicle that efficiently uses our precious resources.Mass transit is efficient because of the large number of people that can be transported if full, but does require large amounts of fuel.

3 points - alternate transportation options such as walking, riding a bike, etc.

2 points - alternate power source transportation such as bio fuel, electric, solar, etc.

1 point - transportation that uses fossil fuel to the fullest such as full busses, trains, planes, and vehicles with gas mileage of 30+

0 points - vehicles that get less than 30 miles to the gallon



Simply the distance traveled to reach your location, reflective of the fossil fuels used and the emissions produced.These distances have a wavering factor, left to your discretion.For example, it is up to you to award two points or three points for a trip that is 28 miles away.Note: if you are using a form of transportation that does not release require fossil fuels or produce emissions, award yourself three points.

3 points - less than 25 miles

2 points - 26 to100 miles

1 point - 101 to 300 miles

0 points - 301 or more miles


Camping Expertise

This easily can be the most important aspect of sustainable travel.Having the right knowledge to conduct your selves in the least harmful manner is critical.Even more important then knowing is putting the knowledge into practice on the trail.One possible credit for each section, each credit is worth one point.

Travel - If there is an established trail, use it in a single file line to avoid widening it.Climb over trees and go through mud, again to avoid increasing the width of the trail.If there is not a trail, spread out so you don't establish one.Watch where you step; walk on bare rocks, firm ground, or impacted areas.Try and not step on vegetation, humans are large animals and can be very destructive.Avoid steep slopes to help reduce erosion.

Choosing a Campsite - Pick a previously used site when possible.Be conscious of your new neighbors, do not set up camp at a local watering hole, denying access to animals.Place tents on firm, bare, or impacted areas.Shorter stays help to minimize impact.Sweep your camp when you leave and leave it better than you found it.

Fires - Clear away all organic litter that may light on fire.Keep fires small and in control. Never leave a fire unattended! Know the area you are in and make an educated decision on what kind and how much wood to use, if at all.Make sure the fire is cold when done. Crush and scatter all coals and ash and restore area to natural look.

Outdoor Bathrooms - Always go far away from water sources.If the waste does not have ample time to filter through the ground, it can contaminate local water sources.Use cat holes.If using toilet paper either pack out or burn.Pack out everything else, including feminine products.

Washing of Self and Dishes - Like going to the bathroom be far away from water.Even biodegradable soaps put stress on the environment so be frugal when using.Dirt and ash do a great job at cleaning out dishes.Every food scrap, no matter how small or how biodegradable should be packed out.

Trash and General Respect - If you bring it in you bring it out.You can prepare your food and supplies before the trip by removing extra packaging, and always bring garbage bags.Check and double check your campsite when you are leaving.Pick up any trash you may find along the trail.Over all be respectful to all life plant and animal alike.Use common sense, don't feed animals, and be respectful of other visitors.

Remember that knowing these skills is one thing but to actually get credit you must practice them too.

1-6 points - 1-6 credits


Group Size

The impact of humans on the environment is connected to how much each person in a group knows and cares about preserving the environment, as well as the size of the group. A large group of students with a greater knowledge is more likely to make less of an impact on an expedition than a small group that has no knowledge or desire to care for the environment.

3 points - a group of 10 members or less with an average score of 4 credits or above on expertise

2 points - a group of more than 10 members with an average score of 4 credits or above on expertise

1 point - a group of 10 members or less with an average score less than 4 credits on expertise

0 points - a group of more than 10 members with an average score less than 4 credits on expertise


Time Spent in One Location

It would be more beneficial for the environment if a small group of people spends less time at a single destination rather than a large group spending a long time at a single destination. The less time that is spent at a destination the less likely the impact will be more noticeable and permanent.

3 points - the size of the group is 10 members or less and less than a week is spent in a single destination

2 points - the size of the group is 10 members or less and more than a week is spent in a single destination

1 point - the size of the group is more than 10 members and less than a week is spent in a single destination

0 points - the size of the group is more than 10 members and more than one week is spent in a single destination



Ecopsychology helps us understand why we go the places we go.By understanding humans' intrinsic need for nature, we can better choose appropriate locations based on our specific purposes.See background for more information on ecopsychology.

3 points - recreation for educational or cultural purposes

2 points - recreation for personal reasons such as fun, exploration, spiritual, etc., has a connection with nature

1 point - no knowledge or reason, just something to do

0 points - out to take advantage of nature



The impact you have on a place is influenced by the knowledge you possess and the type of location you are going to.The impact may or not be acceptable depending on your reason for going there, based on your ecological consciousness or lack of.

3 points- if the location is established and expertise score is above 4 along with at least 2 points for ecopsychology

2 points - if the location is undisturbed and expertise score is above 4 along with at least 2 points for ecopsychology

1 point - if the location is established and expertise score is below 4 along with 2 or less for ecospychology

0 points - if the location is undisturbed and expertise score is below 4 along with 2 or less points for ecopsychology



The ideal situation is to travel the least distance to a location and then spending the greatest time there. For example it would be better to take one long trip every other month than a short trip every weekend in terms of fuel usage and impact. Note: if you are using a form of transportation that does not release require fossil fuels or produce emissions, award yourself three points.

3 points - the distance traveled is less than 100 miles and more than a week is spent recreating

2 points - the distance traveled is less than 100 miles and less than a week is spent recreating

1 point - the distance traveled is more than 100 miles and a week or more is spent recreating

0 points - the distance traveled is over 100 miles and less than a week is spent recreating


Future Steps and Considerations

When dealing with the location aspect of recreating sustainably, one deals more with personal actions instead of objects like in the food and gear aspects of recreation. Because of the wide range of actions that one must take responsibility for in this category and also because all of the actions are interconnected, it is not yet possible to distinguish any more immediate future steps than those that have been addressed. It is up to each individual to decide whether or not they want to follow these guidelines or whether or not they want to update them with better options in sustainable recreation. As long as one thinks consciously about how they are affecting the environment and that they know why they are out in nature, they are on the right track.This is each person's opportunity to take the road less traveled.

There are many complications and subjective information involved with a study on sustainability, particularly location issues.It is difficult to quantify many of the relevant aspects, so specific distances and time frames are somewhat arbitrary, but were the result of much research, thought, and discussion.It is equally difficult to quantify the value of various purposes, so again, use thought, care, and consideration.

References and Resources

Conessa-Sevilla. (2006). Defining Ecopsychology: A New Name for an Old Science.

Louv, Richard. (2005). Last Child in the Woods. New York: Algonquin Books.

Rocky Mountain Sports. August 2007. p.38.

Roszak, Theodore, Gomes, Mary, and Kanner, Allen. (Eds.) (1995). EcopsychologyRestoring the Mind, Healing the Mind. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.

Theodore Roszak's Eight Ecopsychological Principle's

For further reference look at any of the publications by:

Derrick Jensen

Ralph Metzner

Betty Roszak

Theodore Roszak

Paul Shepard


by Drew Cramer, Joe Graveen, Dave Thomas


In conventional agriculture there have been many detrimental effects in and on the environment and in human health and nutrition.The biomagnification - "the bioaccumulation of a substance up the food chain by transfer of residues of the substance in smaller organisms that are food for larger organisms in the chain" (Biomagnification, 2006) - of pesticides has increased dramatically in the animals we eat for food.In the 1987 book by John Robbins, Diet for a New America, he cites research studies that "indicate that of all the toxic chemical residues in the American diet, 95-99%, comes from meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs" (p. 315).Pesticide residues are minimal from diets low on the food chain including "1% from grains, 4% from fruits, and 6% from vegetables compared to 23% from dairy products and 55% from meats" (Realities 1989).Pesticide residues are stored in fat cells in animals higher up on the food chain; people are pesticide sinks, storing residues in their cells.

After World War II, farming changed dramatically from what it had been for centuries before.With the end of the war, the enemy was changed from Germany and Japan to the natural world, absorbing the weapons and machines into another sector of the economy.The tanks became tractors to work the soil while the explosives were transformed into fertilizers to stimulate growth of plants.Before World War II soil fertility was dependent on manure, crop rotations, and the planting of nitrogen fixing plants thus insuring a healthy complex system, but after the war, with an enormous surplus of nitrogen explosives, scientists abandoned the small complex farm and created mechanized farms that were thousands of acres and supplied with nitrogen fertilizers.These fertilizers and animal manure after 60 years of constant misuse have compromised certain aspects of the environment, especially the Gulf of Mexico, where the runoff of all the Midwestern farms has created an enormous algae bloom - known as the Dead Zone - which uses up the oxygen available for aquatic organisms.The Dead Zone, at its peak, is almost the size of New Jersey, fluctuating from year to year (Roach, 2005).

The over-use of petroleum is prevalent in conventional agricultural systems because it is heavily subsidized.If farmers had to pay the "real cost" of petroleum today's farms would look very different.Petroleum is extensively used throughout the agricultural system including the shipping of materials, the machines that plant, maintain, and harvest, and in the creation of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.

Our nation's food supply is dependent on nationwide distribution, ensuring that a product is in a store and not guaranteeing its quality or taste.The average distance produce travels to reach a Chicago market is 1,518 miles (Mason, 2006, 135).Most of the produce comes from California and is trucked throughout the United States on the Interstate Highway System, sometimes traveling as far as 3,000 miles from where it was grown.

Large factory farm implements are employed in conventional agricultural systems to increase the efficiency on the farm.Enormous tractors that run on diesel or propane are used everyday doing tasks around the farm.These machines are powered by fossil fuels and generally run all day throughout the planting and harvesting seasons.

Petroleum based fertilizers are energy intensive.Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers are formed from the Haber-Bosch process by combining nitrogen and hydrogen gases under vast amounts of heat and pressure.The heat and pressure are supplied by electricity and the hydrogen gas from fossil fuels, thus changing what had once been a sun driven cycle to one supplemented by fossil fuels."Every bushel of industrial corn requires the equivalent of between a quarter and a third of a gallon to grow it or about fifty gallons of oil per acre" (Pollan, 2006, 45).This number is so large that it now takes "more than a calorie of fossil fuel energy to produce a calorie of food," when before chemical fertilizers farms "produced more than two calories of food energy for every calorie of energy invested" (Pollen, 2006, 46).

The farming practices in the meat industry should hardly be called farming and instead should be called the industrial production of meat.Beef, poultry, and pork are all raised in large "factory" farms that produce meat in an industrial fashion.These animals are fed a diet of "corn, soybeans, and fishmeal, plus vitamins, hormones, and antibiotics.Such a diet uses massive amounts of water and energy—to grow the feed; water the cattle, pigs, and chickens; and produce the fertilizers" (Steinberg 190).This feed is bought at a lower price than what it cost to grow the grains because of government subsidies.This artificially low price allows the factory farms to raise meat without paying for the costs to the environment—water pollution, soil erosion, lack of diversity, and air pollution.

Cattle are ruminants, meaning they eat grass, and have been doing so forever. Feeding these animals corn is going against hundreds of thousands of years of genetic adaptation.Eating corn causes the rumen to swell and pushes against the other stomachs, causing much pain for the cow, and a veterinarian has to come to the farm to release the pressure. Laying hens live in small, six inch cages, not even allowing them to spread their wings, which are roughly 26 inches (Realities 1989).Hogs regularly bite the tails of other hogs because of the confinement.To live in these confined areas so close to so many other animals, antibiotics are essential or a disease could take out the entire building.As a result, animals now consume more than 30 times the amount of antibiotics than humans (Steinberg 196).This has unknown health risks, but one thing that has resulted from this antibiotic use is increased tolerance in bacteria, leaving older antibiotics ineffective.

Through current "free" trade practices peoples all over the world are being systematically extorted. Mega-corporations are able to sell their products worldwide with no regulations addressing human and environmental rights. The violations on human rights include child labor, low to no wages, long hours without breaks, union busting, and harsh working conditions. The most expense part of almost any product is human labor and by minimizing this cost companies are seeking to maximize profits, with no care for the welfare of the people who work for them.
Health problems from genetically altered foods are a dangerous concern. GMO's (genetically modified organism) can cause include food allergies, increased toxicity, decreased nutritional value, and antibiotic resistance to various bacterium (Genetically Modified Organisms, 2003).Food allergies become a problem because when genetically modifying an organism scientists take a desirable gene from one organism and put it into another. In one case researches put a gene from the Brazil nut into the soybean to increase Methionine production. After the splicing of these two plants people had unexpected allergic reactions to the soy beans containing this gene (Case Study: Brazil nut allergen in GE soybeans). If people can have unforeseen allergic reactions, how many other unforeseen negative effects will GMO's bring?

Another alarming concern regarding food today is bio-piracy.According to the action group on Erosion, Technology, and Concentration (ETC Group), "bio-piracy refers to the appropriation of the knowledge and genetic resources of farming and indigenous communities by individuals or institutions who seek exclusive monopoly control over resources and knowledge" (Brinkman, 2005).It is then possible to obtain patents on food.If a patented food spreads to another farmer's field the patent holder is able to collect royalties on that farmer. As pollens are able to drift many miles, there is bound to be uncontrolled cross breeding, giving one person holding a patent the ability to sue countless others for royalties.

Many genetically altered foods are tested in open air test plots, which has caused uncontrolled spreading in recent years. Such was the case in Aug, 2006 in Oregon when a GE (genetically engineered) bent-grass escaped its testing ground. That same year a German company was responsible for the contamination of virtually all the United States' crop of long grain white rice with a GE variety never intended for human consumption (LaDuke, 2006). These crops are sometimes consumed before they have been deemed safe, even when after testing their level of safety should be questioned. Our tests can not test the multitude of possibilities that occur in nature. Also with uncontrolled spreading these plants cross pollinate with wild strains, possibly driving them out, or creating a new unpredictable strain. Heirloom varieties of plants that have been cultivated for generations become extinct because of one GMO getting loose. Through the production of GMO's we are threatening our crops genetic diversity, something that will take countless years to get back, if we can even get them back at all.
Terminator seeds are seeds that will only produce once, are genetically modified, and are owned by merger mega-corporations like Monsanto and Dupont. The problem with terminator seeds is that they only produce one year's crop. After they have produced they die and no reseeding is possible (Olsen, 1999). This forces farmers to buy them year after year, rendering them dependant upon someone else for their crops. Since it is corporations that own these seeds they are often able to make other seed producers go out of business, resulting in a monopoly on seeds in their area, forcing farmers to buy only from them.

As our farming practices have become more and more estranged from "real" farming, our effects on the land have become nothing short of tragic. In the production of every pound meat, poultry, eggs, or milk five pounds of topsoil are lost (Vandana, 2000, pp 70-71). This loss of topsoil is caused by modern farming practices that let erosion and soil degradation wreck our most basic of natural resources. Topsoil takes years to be produced, and when there is no more topsoil for the plant matter to grow on, there will be no more plant matter to make the topsoil. If we continue to destroy our topsoil we will soon realize the true value of dirt. There is a Cree proverb that speaks on this issue, "Only when the last tree is cut, only when the last river is polluted, only when the last fish is caught, only then will they realize that you cannot eat money."

Sustainable alternatives to conventional agriculture can leave our future with healthy, fertile soil instead of the biologically dead soil conventional systems are creating.Instead of the conventional mindset that we are combating the environment to grow our food, sustainable systems work with nature rather than against it.They employ natural systems and plants to maintain fertility and control pests.

Maintaining fertile soil is easy to do organically using compost.Compost is the recycling of natural materials like leaves, grass clippings, and kitchen scraps into organic matter.The finished product is black and gives the soil that "earthy" smell, like the smell of forest soil.Compost is home to thousands of bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa, and arthropods that feed the plants through their interactions around the plants.Manures can also be composted with the addition of a carbon source; these have higher nitrogen levels and are great for heavy feeding plants like corn.

Mulches are laid out around plants to protect the soil micro-organisms and help retain water in the soil.The mulches also slowly break down and can be thought of as a time released fertilizer.Green mulches can also be grown after or before a harvest and tilled into the soil to increase nutrients—like nitrogen—into the soil. Organic fertilizers such as fish emulsion are used to supplement plants with their needed nutrients.Soil minerals can also be applied to fields or foliar fed to plants to correct mineral deficiencies.

Insect control can be done several ways in organic farming.Healthy plants will generally not have insect damage so pest damage is probably pointing out some kind of deficiency.Paying close attention to crops that are being grown and what is happening around them is crucial for an organic farmer.If there is a pest it can be taken care of immediately before it spreads throughout the farm.Diversity and crop rotations disrupt insect cycles, not allowing one type of pest to cause serious damage.Habitats that encourage predatory insects are essential for a healthy insect population to keep the pest species in check.If a pest does get out of control there are biocides, insecticides derived from plants or other natural materials that are used to kill insects.They are permitable under USDA Organic guidelines, but if a biocide is used it will kill all insects, both beneficial and pest.

Alternatives to petroleum based agriculture are popping up around the country because of demands from consumers.People want food that tastes like food, has more nutrition, and was raised fairly. Local farming is a growing movement across the world, allowing some people to eat within a 100 mile radius of where they live.This reduces fossil fuel use by limiting the distance and number of trucks used for shipping.This food has more vitamins and minerals because it is picked at its ripest stage so it is healthier for the consumer.By supporting this type of farming the money stays in the local economy, building and strengthening the community.Local food can be bought at a farmer's markets, a co-op, off the farm, from a membership to a CSA - community supported agriculture - program, or even from a supermarket if labels are read carefully.

Diverse farm practices are essential for a healthy and productive agrarian system.There are many different kinds of farms that employ natural methods for some or all of their crops.Organic agriculture is the most well known of these, and it currently has standards that have been set by the USDA.There are other farming systems that consider themselves "beyond organic" because the word organic does not mean what it once did.The standards that have been created allow agribusiness to operate a farm very similar to conventional farming, simply substituting fertilizer for manure trucked in many miles or a biocide to control pests rather than pesticides.Many farms that are "beyond organic" use principles based on the food soil web, using the microorganisms underneath the soil to maintain plant and soil fertility through adding compost, mulch, and some no till and tilling options depending on the crop.Another example of a diverse farming practice is permaculture, a system of permanent agriculture developed by Australian Bill Mollison. This type of farming mimics natural ecosystems while producing food for humans, habitat for wildlife, and all the while increasing the soil's fertility. Biodynamic farming is a type of farming that was developed by Rudolf Steiner in the early twentieth century that uses different compost preparations to increase soil fertility and production. All of these farms work with nature rather than against it to feed humans in a sustainable manner.

Free range, grass, pasture fed meats reflect the "real cost" of raising meat because their production is not subsidized.These animals eat a diverse diet including many different kinds of grasses, legumes, and herbaceous plants.This allows the different micronutrients that are found in these plants are transferred to the animal, which in turn is transferred to the people who eat the meat.If multiple animals are raised on pasture operation fertilizers, pesticides, and antibiotics are unnecessary to have a healthy, productive farm.On Polyface Farm cows are grazed in a paddock and moved daily.After the paddock has sat for a day chickens are brought in to scratch through the manure, spreading it, fertilizing the pasture while fertilizing it with their own manure, searching for parasite grubs to eat.This disrupts the parasite-host cycle making pesticides and antibiotics unnecessary.

The easiest way to make sure that what you are buying is indeed giving someone a living wage is if it has a Fair Trade label. Fair Trade is an international, non-profit, multi-stakeholder association that among other things sets standards and certifies certain products if they meet these standards. Instead of impoverishing people in third world countries, it empowers them. "Fair trade businesses return 1/3 to 1/4 of profits back to producers in developing countries" (Facts and Figures, 2007). Buy purchasing Fair Trade labeled products you can be assured that all workers were paid fairly.

The health benefit of using non-GMO food is that its seed is natural and most likely organically grow, while GMO foods are altered and can create toxins, allergens, carcinogens, or nutritional problems (From an interview by 'noseweek', South African investigative magazine, with Jeffrey Smith, author of 'the non-GMO bible' Seeds of Deception, exposing bad science behind GMO's, government and biotech industry lies).
 Commons are resources owned equally by every member of the community, even though the community recognizes that only a limited number of members may use the resource at any given time. Commons is most often a finite but replenishable resource, which requires responsible use in order to remain available. It requires not only responsible use but also active contribution from its users.

According to Seed Saver Exchange, a heirloom seed is any garden plant that has had a history of being passed down in a family. Protecting heirloom seeds is protecting the genetic diversity of that unique variety of seed.

Proper land management requires long range planning in terms of enhancing its potential to produce and to be sustainable. Adopting proper land use patterns and implementing synergistic soil and crop management practices are necessary to conserve the potential of land in perpetuity. Proper land management consists of the two key issues of what to use the land for and how to use it to obtain maximum productivity in perpetuity.


This food model is mainly focused on things that the consumer has control over. By reading the labels of food much information can be readily had. Since this is the information that is available to a consumer this is how we will rate a food's sustainability. Another part that factors into this model is the benefit of growing your own foods or gathering them from the land.Remember that each type of food needs to be rated individually before averaging the scores.Note: this model does not take into account how much of a food you are consuming, so one cup of tea can factor the same as 20 pounds of beef. Be aware of this fact.


Organic foods are foods that have no pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers added. These chemicals that are often used in food production are synthesized from petroleum, and therefore unsustainable.

1 point - organic

0 points - not organic



Most of our foods come from hundreds if not thousands of miles away, burning fossil fuels and toxic emissions. Foods that are grown locally do not.

2 points - grown locally

0 points- not local


Fair Trade

Labor is expensive, therefore it is cheaper for a company to treat its employees abominably. When companies have factories overseas they are not subject to the same, if any, labor laws. By buying foods that have they Fair Trade logo you can be assured that the people who produced your food were treated appropriately and earned decent wages.

1 point - Fair Trade certified

0 points - not Fair Trade certified


Small Farm

Large corporate farms practice methods of farming that are over-taxing on the land. Since they try to have high outputs they ship in resources from all over the country to produce their food. Small farms use only what is available to them and have to be more conscientious of how they treat the land.

1 point - grown at a small farm

0 points - grown at a corporate farm



Genetically modified foods have numerous unforeseen side effects, ranging from environmental dangers to direct health dangers. Foods that have not been genetically modified have evolved to be consumed and have been proven safe by thousands of years of consumption.

1 point - non-GMO

0 points - GMO



Large amounts of resources are grown to be fed to animals, who are often left inside small cages never seeing the light of day. When they are in one place for so long they have high levels of waste concentrated, increasing the need for antibiotics. These animals are also often raised in a way that is highly taxing on water and food supplies. There is no distinct line for an ethically raised meat, read into where your meat comes from if you are purchasing meat, and find out the farmers' practices. Since non-meat products are naturally less intensive to grow they are also more efficient.

2 points - Conscientiously raised meat or no meat

0 points - Unconscientiously raised meat


Home Grown and Locally Gathered

There are naturally growing foods almost everywhere, even in places where you can't find food you can grow it. Foods that you grow or gather you have direct control over. They are local and very likely organic.

2 points - Home grown or locally gathered food

0 points - Not grown or gathered


Future Steps and Considerations

As this is just the beginning of change it is necessary to plan for future changes. This model gives a way to rate how sustainable our choices are; by paying attention to what matters to you, you can determine possible options that would be appropriate for your community. At our campus every year we have Outdoor Orientation trips. Incoming students go out on trips with several returning students. Our campus also has a small garden, so it would be very easy to grow all the food needed to feed all the new students on their trips. Other possible actions would be to lead campus discussions on sustainable food options and when awareness grows large enough we could petition our school to only purchase only sustainable foods. These are some possible options that are appropriate for our community, yours might be different.


Unanswered Questions

When making this model there were some things that we were unable to cover or fully understand. When doing your own research we recommend thinking about these things:

Can non-local foods be justifiably purchased?

Transportation methods questioned? Short distance car versus long distance train, which is more sustainable?

Places where food cannot be grown easily? When local food is not available?

Price versus the true cost of food? We pay more money for sustainable foods but more do not pay the true cost for "normal" foods, how to balance with small income?

Points system needs more modification, some things more important than others?

References and Resources



Biomagnifacation. (December 2006). Retrieved December 3, 2007, from United States Geological Survey Web site:

Brinkman, J. (2005). Peruvian Maca and Allegations of Biopiracy. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from The Journal of the American Botanical Council Web site

Case Study: Brazil Nut allergen in GE soybeans. (n.d.). Retrieved on December 3, 2007, from Genetically Engineered Organisms Web site

Facts and Figures. (2007). Retrieved on December 3, 2007 , from Fair Trade Federation Web site:

Genetically Modified Organisms. (2003). Retrieved December 3, 2007, from University of Minnesota Environmental Health Sciences Web site:

LaDuke, W. October 06, 2006.Manoomin, seed sovereignty and genetics. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from Indian Country Tody Web Site:

Mason J, Singer P. (2006). The Way We Eat: Why Our Food Choices Matter. USA: Rodale. Inc.

Olsen, M. (1999). Terminator Unleashed: Patenting Life - Patenting Death. Retrieved on December 3, 2007, from Biological koyaanisqatsi Web

Pollen, M. (2006). The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: The Penguin Press.

Roach, J.May 25, 2005. Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone" is Size of New Jersey. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from National Geographic web site:

Robbins, J. (1987). Diet for a New America: How Your Food Choices Affect Your Health, Happiness, and the Future of Life on Earth. Tiburon, CA: H J Kramer Inc. Realities 1989. (n.d.) Retrieved December 3, 2007, from Earth Save Boston Website:

Steinberg, Ted. Down to Earth: Nature's Role in American History. New York, Oxford University Press, 2002.

Vandana Shiva. (2000). Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of Global Food Supply. South End Press. pp. 70-71.

Sources used but not cited

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