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Risk Management & First Aid

The Risk Management and First Aid Group focuses on managing safety in outdoor programming.
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  • Blog Post: Epinephrine for Out-of-Hospital Treatment of Anaphylaxis

    by Paul Auerbach, M.D. For management of a serious (even life-threatening) allergic reaction, I have been teaching adults to administer epinephrine (adrenaline) by injection for years. This can be a lifesaving intervention. The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) community now concurs that EMS personnel...
  • Blog Post: WMS Recommendations on the Use of Epinephrine in Outdoor Education and Wilderness Settings

    In the new issue of the Journal of Wilderness & Environmental Medicine is the Wilderness Medical Society Roundtable Report--Recommendations on the Use of Epinephrine in Outdoor Education and Wilderness Settings by Flavio Gaudio MD, Jay Lemery MD, and David Johnson MD. The WMS convened this roundtable...
  • Blog Post: Auto-Injector Safety

    I recently received a credible email account of a person with WFR training accidently discharging an auto-injector of epinephrine into their thumb. Thankfully, the thumb, and the patient who really needed the epinephrine are fine. The anecdote is a reminder that these devices are not foolproof. We need...
  • Blog Post: Frozen Autoinjectors and Armpits

    I recently exchanged emails with a fellow who asked if it was acceptable to freeze the auto-injector in his first aid kit. I told him of course not, you may not have time to thaw the medication. Now curious, I intentionally froze four expired EpiPens® on a minus 22ºF night and timed how long...
  • Blog Post: Autoinjector Skills

    There is an interesting article in April 13th edition of the Austin Statesman on whether ambulance and fire dispatchers should instruct people over the phone on use of an autoinjector of epinephrine. It’s another spin on this epinephrine tale. 1 It also speaks to the issue of skill retention. There...
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